By John W. Evans PhD (auth.), Werner Engelmaier Dipl.-Ing. (eds.)
While tin/lead solders have ruled the electronics for a few years, environmental concerns and new laws are forcing swap. subsidized by way of greater than ten years of analysis in Pb-free solders, many electronics brands are poised for conversion.
A consultant to Lead-free Solders is meant as a device to aid because it strikes right into a new period within the creation and use of solders. an summary of the foundations of soldering know-how is equipped starting with the speculation underlying every one notion. concentrating on the main updated tools for checking out and characterization, those theories are then bolstered via experimental examples and commercial applications.
• Addresses key concerns in meeting from a fabrics aspect of view.
• supplies the reader handy entry to information crucial for the correct overview and employment of state of the art ternary Sn/Ag/X solders
• permits comparability of the functionality of Pb-free solders with that of normal eutectic SnPb.
Although basically of curiosity to specialist layout and reliability engineers operating in electronics meeting and production, A advisor to Lead-free Solders may also be useful for graduate scholars trying to practice services in fabrics, mechanical or digital engineering during this undefined. Researchers in electronics and fabrics will locate the newest examine at their fingertips including the most probably instructions will want from such study within the future.
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Additional resources for A Guide to Lead-free Solders: Physical Metallurgy and Reliability
6. The flip-chip interconnect is based on three fundamental building blocks: the bumps on the chip, the substrate and the method of joining the chip to the substrate (Boustedt 1998). Flip chips offer some very significant advantages over conventional packaging, including superior electrical performance, potentially higher reliability, reduced footprint, higher I/O counts, finer pitches, and potentially reduced cost. There are many different technologies for joining flip chips: soldering, thermocompression joining, thermosonic joining, and adhesives.
Fatigue-life prediction is discussed in later chapters in more detail. It should be noted that sufficient data may be available for either a simple approach or strain energy approach for eutectic SnPb alloys, but is lacking for many of the substitute alloys. Finally, materials properties and manufacturing are inherently variable. Hence, we are actually dealing with a large set of random variables. Generally, modeling is focused to estimate mean life and testing is used to extract information about life statistics often by applying the Weibull distribution, as discussed in Chapter 7.
4 Assembly Technology 45 rather the fine-pitch components. However, the emerging flip chip may come to govern the critical stenciling parameters. Placing the components on the paste requires careful alignment. The paste should have adequate tack or sticky consistency to hold the components in place during handling. Placement equipment is characterized as manual, semiautomated, or automated. For BGA, conventional placement systems can be employed, using either the package outline or the position of the solder spheres as a guide (Solberg 1999).