A reference grammar of Wappo by Sandra A Thompson; Charles N Li; Joseph Sung-Yul Park

By Sandra A Thompson; Charles N Li; Joseph Sung-Yul Park

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Interestingly, reports of past actions without a resulting state seem to be crosslinguistically relatively rarely used in ordinary discourse; it seems that people tend to associate pastness with “closure”. 1 Tense and Aspect 43 While most of these examples with PST express punctual perfective meanings, there is much evidence in our materials that PST is not perfective. Here are two such examples: (62) ah uwa pihkahlik - taʔ 1SG:NOM bad ‘I felt bad’ (117) (63) ah maʔa feel - PST nahleʔ olol - taʔ 1SG:NOM just little:while dance - PST ‘I only danced for a little while’ (194) Finally, we note that there is tense variation in our narratives; more data would be needed to generalize.

3 Dative: -thu The dative case suffix is used for recipients, and to indicate direction. ’ (341) (27) cephi isa - ma o - mehwil - taʔ 3SG:NOM 1PL - BENEF UOP ‘s/he told us the story’ (32) tell - PST The use of -ma in the following elicited example may be due to the influence of English. 7 Genitive: -meʔ The genitive suffix, as in many languages, is used only with expressions of alienable possession. 2 above). The inalienable possession construction is found with body parts, kin terms (except for ek'a ‘son’, and ok'o:to ‘children’ which inexplicably occur with either the suffixed or unsuffixed form), words for ‘friend’, and some (apparently important) material possessions, such as čhuya ‘house’: (39) c'ic'a khap - keʔte - khiʔ i bird wing - NOM broken - STAT ‘the bird’s wing is broken’ (65) (40) te pheʔ - i tuč'a - khiʔ 3SG foot - NOM big - STAT ‘his/her foot is big’ (j41) (41) i yawe ah huhkal - taʔ 1SG name 1SG:NOM remember - PST ‘I remembered my name’ (74) (42) cephi me č'a - kek'i - ya:miʔ ew 3SG:NOM 3SG husband DIR - leave - FUT ‘she’s going to leave her husband’ (705) BUT: (43) te - meʔ ok'o:t - i natuy' - siʔ 3SG - GEN children - NOM believe - DUR ‘his/her children believe (it)’ (58) Finally, here is a minimal pair illustrating the difference in interpretation between an alienably and an inalienably possessed noun: 16 The Noun Phrase (44) a.

54) a. eču mey - i ela - khiʔ river water - NOM deep - STAT b. 4 Number (58) a. kašic' - t - i mul' - boy - PL - NOM i 19 o:hak' - šeʔ all - NOM hungry - DUR b. 4 Number Both nouns and adjectives show number; the singular is unmarked, and the plural morpheme is generally the suffix -te, though some adjectives have idiosyncratic 20 The Noun Phrase plural forms, such as tuč'a ‘big’, whose plural form is koṭo:mela (see also Sawyer 1991). Both human and non-human nouns may be inflected for number, though nonhuman nouns often do not show plural marking even when the sense is plural.

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