An Introduction to Modern Cosmology by Andrew Liddle

By Andrew Liddle

A concise, obtainable advent to this fascinating and dynamic subject.* Adopts an process grounded in physics instead of mathematics.* contains labored examples and scholar difficulties, besides tricks for fixing them and the numerical answers.* Many reviewers have commented that this is often the most effective 'introductory undergraduate point' texts at the topic and they'd all welcome a moment variation.

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6 On mass, energy and vanishing factors of c2 You should be aware that cosmologists have a habit of using mass density p and energy density c interchangeably. They are related via Einstein's most famous equation as e = pc2, and if one chooses so-called 'natural units' in which c is set equal to one, the two become the same. For clarity, however, I will be careful to maintain the distinction. Note that the phrase 'mass density' is used in Einstein's sense — it includes the contributions to the mass from the energy of the various particles, as well as any rest mass they might have.

After all, in a conventional explosion that is a perfectly reasonable question to ask, as all the material flies outwards from the ignition point. Unfortunately, for the Big Bang things aren't so simple, and in a sense 30 THE GEOMETRY OF THE UNIVERSE the answer is 'everywhere and nowhere'. First of all, remember that our entire foundation is the cosmological principle, telling us that no point in the Universe is special. If there were a particular point where the 'Bang' happened, that would clearly be a special point and violate the cosmological principle.

Confusingly, sometimes the term 'radiation' is used to refer to all the relativistic material. There are three types of neutrino, the electron neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino, and if they are indeed all massless they should all exist in our Universe. Unfortunately, their interactions are so weak that for now there is no hope of detecting cosmological neutrinos directly. Originally their presence was inferred on purely theoretical grounds, though we will see that the existence of the cosmic neutrino background may be inferred indirectly by some cosmological observations.

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